Bangkok Law Firm

Category: Litigation

Breach of Contract in Thailand

Contracts are the foundation of business transactions and agreements, providing a clear framework for the rights and obligations of parties involved. However, when one party fails to fulfill its obligations as specified in a contract, a breach of contract occurs. In Thailand, as in many legal systems, breach of contract has legal implications and established remedies to address the resulting disputes.

Understanding Breach of Contract:

A breach of contract occurs when one party fails to perform its obligations as outlined in a legally binding agreement. This breach can take various forms, including:

  1. Non-Performance: Failing to fulfill contractual obligations within the specified timeframe.
  2. Incomplete Performance: Providing partial or inadequate performance as per the contract’s terms.
  3. Anticipatory Breach: Expressing an intent or demonstrating an inability to fulfill obligations before the performance is due.
  4. Defective Performance: Delivering goods or services that do not meet the agreed-upon quality or standards.

Legal Consequences:

In Thailand, a breach of contract has legal consequences, which can include:

  1. Damages: The non-breaching party may be entitled to claim damages, which aim to compensate for the financial losses incurred due to the breach.
  2. Specific Performance: The court may order the breaching party to fulfill its contractual obligations as originally agreed upon.
  3. Termination: The non-breaching party may choose to terminate the contract due to the breach, relieving both parties of their obligations under the agreement.

Enforcement of Contracts:

The enforcement of contracts in Thailand is governed by the Thai Civil and Commercial Code. Key provisions related to breach of contract include:

  1. Civil Code: The Civil Code outlines the principles governing contract law in Thailand. It emphasizes that parties must fulfill their obligations in good faith and in accordance with the nature of the agreement.
  2. Specific Performance: The court may order specific performance when monetary compensation would not adequately remedy the breach. Specific performance requires the breaching party to fulfill their contractual obligations.
  3. Damages: Damages aim to compensate the non-breaching party for the financial losses suffered due to the breach. The damages should be reasonable and foreseeable at the time the contract was formed.

Contractual Remedies:

When a breach of contract occurs, parties have several remedies available:

  1. Damages: The most common remedy, damages compensate the non-breaching party for the monetary losses incurred due to the breach. Damages can be compensatory (directly compensating for losses), consequential (covering indirect losses), or punitive (punishing the breaching party).
  2. Specific Performance: This remedy compels the breaching party to fulfill their contractual obligations as originally agreed upon.
  3. Cancellation or Rescission: The non-breaching party can choose to cancel or rescind the contract, effectively releasing both parties from their obligations.
  4. Quantum Meruit: If one party partially performs but is unable to complete the contract due to the other party’s breach, they may be entitled to payment for the work completed (reasonable value).
  5. Liquidated Damages: Some contracts include clauses specifying the amount of damages to be paid in case of breach. These clauses must be reasonable and reflective of anticipated losses.

Statute of Limitations:

It’s important to be aware of the statute of limitations for filing a breach of contract claim in Thailand. Generally, the limitation period is ten years from the date the obligation becomes due.

Dispute Resolution:

If a breach of contract dispute arises, parties can seek resolution through various means:

  1. Negotiation: Parties may attempt to resolve the dispute amicably through negotiation or mediation.
  2. Arbitration: Some contracts include arbitration clauses, specifying that disputes will be resolved through arbitration rather than litigation.
  3. Litigation: If no alternative dispute resolution mechanism is stipulated, parties can seek resolution through the court system.


Breach of contract is a significant legal issue in Thailand with well-defined legal implications and remedies. Understanding the legal framework surrounding contracts, breaches, and remedies is crucial for individuals and businesses engaged in contractual relationships. By upholding the principles of contract law, Thailand’s legal system ensures that parties can seek redress and remedies when contractual obligations are not met, promoting fairness and accountability in business transactions.

Personal Injury Claims in Thailand

Accidents and injuries can have far-reaching consequences, affecting physical health, emotional well-being, and financial stability. In Thailand, as in many countries, personal injury claims provide a legal avenue for individuals to seek compensation when they suffer harm due to the negligence or wrongdoing of others. Understanding the process and legal framework surrounding personal injury claims is essential for those seeking justice and fair compensation.

Types of Personal Injury Claims:

Personal injury claims encompass a wide range of scenarios, including:

  1. Traffic Accidents: Motor vehicle accidents involving cars, motorcycles, trucks, and pedestrians are common sources of personal injury claims.
  2. Workplace Accidents: Injuries that occur while working, such as slip-and-fall accidents, faulty equipment incidents, and construction site injuries, may lead to claims against employers.
  3. Medical Malpractice: Cases where patients suffer harm due to medical negligence, incorrect diagnosis, surgical errors, or substandard care can result in personal injury claims.
  4. Product Liability: Defective or dangerous products that cause injuries or illnesses can lead to claims against manufacturers, distributors, or sellers.

Legal Framework:

Personal injury claims in Thailand are largely governed by the Civil and Commercial Code. These claims fall under tort law, where the injured party seeks compensation for the harm suffered. The injured party, known as the plaintiff, must establish several key elements to succeed in a personal injury claim:

  1. Duty of Care: The defendant (the party allegedly at fault) owed a duty of care to the plaintiff to prevent harm.
  2. Breach of Duty: The defendant breached their duty of care through negligence or wrongdoing.
  3. Causation: The breach of duty directly caused the plaintiff’s injuries.
  4. Damages: The plaintiff suffered actual damages, such as physical injuries, medical expenses, emotional distress, and loss of income.

Claim Process:

  1. Gathering Evidence: Collect evidence related to the accident or incident, including photographs, medical records, witness statements, and any relevant documents.
  2. Legal Consultation: Consult with a personal injury lawyer who specializes in Thai law to understand your rights and legal options.
  3. Pre-litigation Negotiation: Before filing a lawsuit, your lawyer may engage in negotiations with the defendant or their insurance company to seek a settlement.
  4. Filing a Lawsuit: If negotiations fail to produce a satisfactory outcome, your lawyer can file a lawsuit on your behalf.
  5. Discovery: Both parties exchange relevant information and evidence during the discovery phase, which helps establish the facts of the case.
  6. Mediation: In some cases, parties may engage in mediation to attempt to reach a settlement with the assistance of a neutral third party.
  7. Trial: If mediation is unsuccessful, the case proceeds to trial. Both sides present their evidence and arguments, and a judge makes a determination based on the facts presented.
  8. Verdict and Compensation: If the court rules in your favor, the defendant may be ordered to pay compensation for damages.

Statute of Limitations:

It’s important to be aware of the statute of limitations, which sets a time limit within which you must file a personal injury claim. In Thailand, the general statute of limitations for personal injury claims is one year from the date of the incident. However, this timeline may vary depending on the specific circumstances of the case.

Role of Insurance:

Insurance often plays a crucial role in personal injury claims. Many individuals and businesses have liability insurance that covers compensation in the event of accidents or injuries caused by their negligence. Insurance companies may be involved in negotiations and settlements.


Personal injury claims in Thailand provide a mechanism for individuals to seek justice and compensation when they suffer harm due to the negligence or wrongdoing of others. By understanding the legal framework, seeking legal counsel, and gathering evidence, injured parties can navigate the claims process to secure fair compensation for their physical, emotional, and financial losses. Through personal injury claims, Thailand’s legal system strives to uphold the principles of accountability, justice, and protection for individuals who have suffered injuries.

Medical Malpractice in Thailand

Medical malpractice is a pressing concern in healthcare systems worldwide, including Thailand. As a country known for its medical tourism and expanding healthcare industry, Thailand places a significant emphasis on maintaining high standards of patient care and addressing cases of medical negligence. Balancing the needs of patients and the challenges faced by medical professionals, Thailand’s legal and healthcare systems work in tandem to ensure patient safety and uphold accountability.

Understanding Medical Malpractice:

Medical malpractice refers to instances where healthcare professionals fail to provide the standard of care expected within their field, leading to harm or injury to patients. These cases may involve misdiagnosis, surgical errors, medication mistakes, negligent treatment, lack of informed consent, and more.

Legal Framework:

In Thailand, medical malpractice cases are governed by both civil and criminal laws. The primary focus is on ensuring compensation for the victims and holding medical professionals accountable for their actions. Key legal aspects include:

  1. Civil Liability: Patients who have suffered harm due to medical negligence can file civil lawsuits seeking compensation for medical expenses, pain and suffering, and other damages.
  2. Criminal Liability: In cases of gross negligence or actions that cause severe harm or death, medical professionals may face criminal charges. These charges can result in fines, imprisonment, or both.

Proving Medical Malpractice:

To establish a case of medical malpractice, several elements need to be proven:

  1. Duty of Care: The healthcare professional owed a duty of care to the patient, which means they had a responsibility to provide competent and reasonable treatment.
  2. Breach of Duty: The healthcare professional breached their duty of care by failing to provide treatment that met the standard of care expected in their field.
  3. Causation: The breach of duty directly caused harm or injury to the patient. The harm would not have occurred if not for the healthcare professional’s actions or lack thereof.
  4. Damages: The patient suffered damages, such as physical, emotional, or financial harm, as a result of the breach of duty and the resulting harm.

Addressing Medical Malpractice:

  1. Reporting and Documentation: Patients who suspect medical malpractice should report the incident to the hospital administration or relevant authorities. Comprehensive documentation of medical records, treatment plans, and communication can be crucial in establishing a case.
  2. Mediation and Negotiation: Hospitals and medical professionals may attempt to resolve disputes through mediation or negotiation before cases proceed to court.
  3. Civil Lawsuits: If negotiations fail, patients can file civil lawsuits seeking compensation for damages. These cases are heard in civil courts.
  4. Criminal Cases: In cases of gross negligence or intentional harm, criminal charges can be pursued, resulting in legal penalties for medical professionals.
  5. Professional Regulation: Regulatory bodies, such as the Medical Council of Thailand, play a role in investigating complaints against medical professionals and taking disciplinary actions if warranted.

Patient Safety Initiatives:

Thailand’s healthcare system also emphasizes preventive measures to minimize the occurrence of medical malpractice:

  1. Training and Education: Medical professionals undergo rigorous training to ensure they have the necessary skills and knowledge to provide safe and effective care.
  2. Protocols and Guidelines: Hospitals and clinics follow established protocols and guidelines to standardize treatment procedures and ensure consistent care.
  3. Quality Control: Regular audits and reviews of medical practices help identify areas for improvement and ensure compliance with best practices.


Medical malpractice cases underscore the complexities of the healthcare industry, where the stakes involve patient well-being and professional integrity. In Thailand, the legal system, regulatory bodies, and healthcare institutions work together to address instances of medical malpractice, seeking both accountability and patient safety. By fostering a culture of transparency, continuous improvement, and adherence to high standards, Thailand’s healthcare system strives to uphold its reputation as a destination for quality medical care while ensuring that patient rights are protected and justice is served.


Trade Disputes in Thailand

Trade disputes are a recurring phenomenon in the global economic landscape, stemming from disagreements over trade policies, tariffs, market access, and more. Thailand, as a dynamic participant in international trade, encounters its share of trade-related conflicts. To ensure a stable and equitable trading environment, the country has established mechanisms to address these disputes while upholding its commitment to fair trade practices and international agreements.

Causes of Trade Disputes:

Trade disputes can arise from a variety of factors, including:

  1. Tariffs and Quotas: Disagreements over tariffs (taxes on imports) and quotas (limits on import quantities) can create tensions between trading partners.
  2. Dumping: When one country exports goods at a price lower than their market value, it can harm domestic industries in the importing country, leading to disputes.
  3. Subsidies: Government subsidies provided to domestic industries can distort competition and prompt trading partners to challenge these practices.
  4. Intellectual Property Rights: Disputes may emerge when countries disagree on the protection of intellectual property rights, including patents, trademarks, and copyrights.
  5. Non-Tariff Barriers: Regulations, standards, and other non-tariff barriers can hinder trade and provoke conflicts over compliance and fairness.

WTO and International Agreements:

Thailand is a member of the World Trade Organization (WTO), an international body that aims to facilitate trade and resolve trade-related disputes through a rules-based system. The WTO provides a forum for negotiations, cooperation, and dispute settlement among its member countries.

The Dispute Settlement Understanding (DSU) within the WTO outlines the procedures for resolving trade disputes. If two countries are unable to resolve their differences through consultations, they can request the establishment of a dispute settlement panel. The panel reviews the case and issues a ruling, which can be appealed. This process ensures that trade conflicts are resolved in a transparent and rules-based manner.

Thailand’s Approach to Trade Disputes:

Thailand recognizes the importance of maintaining a fair and stable trading environment and adhering to international trade rules. The country’s approach to trade disputes involves:

  1. Negotiation: As a first step, Thailand aims to address trade disputes through negotiation and dialogue with the involved parties. This approach seeks to find mutually acceptable solutions before escalating the issue.
  2. WTO Mechanisms: When negotiations fail, Thailand can resort to the WTO’s dispute settlement mechanism to seek resolution in accordance with established rules and procedures.
  3. Bilateral Agreements: Thailand also engages in bilateral discussions with trading partners to resolve disputes, focusing on mutually beneficial solutions.
  4. Compliance: Thailand places importance on complying with international trade agreements, which helps prevent disputes by ensuring consistent and transparent trade practices.

Benefits of Trade Dispute Resolution:

Efficient trade dispute resolution carries numerous benefits:

  1. Preserving Trade Relationships: Timely resolution helps maintain positive trade relationships, preventing long-lasting conflicts that could hinder economic cooperation.
  2. Economic Stability: Resolving disputes swiftly reduces uncertainty, promoting economic stability and investor confidence.
  3. Fair Competition: Addressing trade imbalances and unfair practices ensures a level playing field, fostering fair competition and market access.
  4. Global Reputation: Active participation in fair dispute resolution mechanisms enhances a country’s reputation as a responsible and reliable trading partner.


Trade disputes are an inevitable aspect of international trade, reflecting the complexities and competing interests of global commerce. In Thailand, a commitment to fair trade practices, compliance with international agreements, and engagement with dispute resolution mechanisms are integral to maintaining a stable and prosperous trading environment. By promoting negotiation, adhering to the rules of the WTO, and seeking bilateral solutions, Thailand contributes to the broader goal of ensuring fair and equitable trade practices on the international stage.

Labor Disputes in Thailand

Labor disputes are a common occurrence in workplaces worldwide, and Thailand is no exception. As a country with a significant industrial and service sector, Thailand has established a legal framework to address labor-related conflicts and ensure a fair and balanced resolution process. These disputes often involve a delicate balance between the rights of workers and the interests of employers, with the aim of maintaining industrial harmony and economic stability.

Causes of Labor Disputes:

Labor disputes can arise for various reasons, ranging from disagreements over wages and benefits to working conditions, job security, and collective bargaining rights. Common issues that trigger labor disputes in Thailand include:

  1. Wages and Benefits: Disagreements over fair wages, overtime pay, bonuses, and benefits can lead to conflicts between workers and employers.
  2. Working Conditions: Concerns related to workplace safety, health, and hygiene, as well as the provision of proper equipment and facilities, can spark disputes.
  3. Termination and Layoffs: Disputes may arise when employees feel their termination or layoff is unjustified or not in compliance with labor laws.
  4. Collective Bargaining: Negotiations between labor unions and management regarding labor contracts, working conditions, and collective agreements can lead to disagreements.
  5. Discrimination and Harassment: Instances of workplace discrimination, harassment, or unequal treatment can escalate into disputes.

Legal Framework for Resolving Labor Disputes:

Thailand’s labor laws provide a structured mechanism for resolving disputes through negotiation, mediation, and legal channels:

  1. Negotiation: The initial step in resolving a labor dispute involves negotiations between the parties involved, which may include employees, their representatives, and management. Negotiations aim to find mutually acceptable solutions.
  2. Mediation: If negotiations fail, mediation can be pursued through the Department of Labor Protection and Welfare or other relevant authorities. Mediators facilitate discussions to reach a resolution that satisfies both parties.
  3. Labor Court: In cases where negotiation and mediation do not yield results, the dispute can be escalated to the Labor Court. The court specializes in labor-related matters and aims to provide an impartial and efficient resolution process.
  4. Arbitration: Some labor agreements or contracts may include clauses for arbitration, where an independent third party reviews the dispute and makes a binding decision.

Labor Relations Act and Collective Bargaining:

The Labor Relations Act of Thailand governs the rights and responsibilities of employers, employees, and labor unions. The Act emphasizes the importance of freedom of association, the right to form unions, and the right to engage in collective bargaining. It provides a legal framework for conducting negotiations and reaching agreements between labor unions and employers. The Act aims to strike a balance between promoting workers’ rights and enabling employers to maintain a productive and harmonious work environment.

Resolution Process:

  1. Notice of Intention: Before resorting to a strike or lockout, both parties must issue a notice of intention to the Commissioner of Labor Protection and Welfare.
  2. Cooling-Off Period: A mandatory 15-day cooling-off period follows the notice of intention. During this time, both parties are encouraged to resolve their differences through negotiations.
  3. Resolution Attempt: If negotiations are unsuccessful, the parties may opt for conciliation or apply for arbitration.
  4. Strike and Lockout: If all else fails, workers can proceed with a strike, and employers can initiate a lockout. These actions should be conducted in accordance with legal requirements.

Importance of Dispute Resolution:

Efficient labor dispute resolution is crucial for maintaining a stable business environment, protecting workers’ rights, and preventing disruptions to productivity. Timely resolution minimizes financial losses, safeguards the reputation of companies, and ensures the well-being of employees.


Labor disputes in Thailand reflect the broader global challenge of reconciling the interests of workers and employers. The legal framework in Thailand emphasizes negotiation, mediation, and legal channels to ensure that conflicts are addressed fairly and efficiently. By upholding the principles of labor rights, collective bargaining, and dispute resolution, Thailand strives to strike a balance between the aspirations of workers and the viability of businesses, promoting industrial harmony and economic growth.

Civil and Criminal Cases in Thailand

Thailand’s legal system provides a comprehensive framework for addressing civil and criminal cases, ensuring justice, protection of rights, and accountability. Civil cases involve disputes between individuals or entities, while criminal cases deal with offenses against the state or society. Understanding the distinctions between these two categories is essential for anyone seeking legal recourse in Thailand.

Civil Cases:

Civil cases in Thailand revolve around disputes between private individuals, organizations, or entities. These disputes can encompass a wide range of issues, including contractual disagreements, property disputes, family matters, personal injury claims, and more. The primary objective of civil cases is to provide remedies, such as monetary compensation or specific performance, to the aggrieved party.

Legal Procedures:

  1. Filing a Complaint: The process begins when the plaintiff (the aggrieved party) files a complaint with the relevant court, outlining the nature of the dispute and the relief sought.
  2. Service of Summons: Once the complaint is accepted, the court issues a summons to the defendant (the party against whom the complaint is filed), notifying them of the lawsuit.
  3. Evidence Presentation: Both parties present evidence to support their claims. This may include documents, witness testimonies, and expert opinions.
  4. Judgment: The court evaluates the evidence and arguments presented by both sides and renders a judgment. The judgment may order the payment of compensation, the performance of a specific action, or other remedies as deemed appropriate.
  5. Appeals: If dissatisfied with the judgment, either party can appeal to a higher court for reconsideration.

Criminal Cases:

Criminal cases involve offenses against the state or society and are prosecuted by the government. These offenses can range from minor infractions to serious crimes, such as theft, assault, fraud, and more. The primary goal of criminal cases is to establish guilt or innocence and, if necessary, impose penalties on the guilty party.

Legal Procedures:

  1. Investigation: Law enforcement agencies investigate the alleged offense, gather evidence, and identify suspects.
  2. Charging: If there is sufficient evidence to support the charges, the prosecution files formal charges against the accused.
  3. Trial: The case proceeds to trial, where the prosecution presents evidence to prove the guilt of the accused beyond a reasonable doubt. The accused has the right to defense and can present counterarguments and evidence.
  4. Verdict: The court reviews the evidence and arguments and renders a verdict of guilty or not guilty. If the accused is found guilty, the court determines the appropriate penalty.
  5. Appeals: Both the prosecution and the accused can appeal the verdict to higher courts if they believe errors were made during the trial.

Key Distinctions:

  1. Burden of Proof: In civil cases, the burden of proof rests on the balance of probabilities, meaning the evidence must establish that it is more likely than not that the claim is true. In criminal cases, the burden of proof lies with the prosecution, who must prove the guilt of the accused beyond a reasonable doubt.
  2. Parties Involved: In civil cases, the primary parties are the plaintiff and the defendant. In criminal cases, the parties are the state (prosecution) and the accused.
  3. Purpose: Civil cases seek to resolve disputes and provide remedies to the aggrieved party, while criminal cases aim to establish guilt and impose penalties for offenses.
  4. Outcome: In civil cases, the outcome can include compensation, injunctions, or specific performance. In criminal cases, the outcome can involve fines, imprisonment, probation, or other penalties.


The legal system in Thailand distinguishes between civil and criminal cases to ensure that justice is served in a fair and balanced manner. Understanding the processes and procedures associated with these cases is vital for anyone seeking legal redress or facing legal challenges. Whether it’s resolving private disputes or addressing offenses against society, Thailand’s legal framework strives to uphold the rule of law, protect rights, and maintain social order.