Bangkok Law Firm

Category: Property Law

Title Search in Thailand

Title Search in Thailand

Title Search in Thailand. Real estate capital is significant, so property ownership validity is vital. A thorough title search is essential in Thailand’s real estate purchase process. In Thailand, title searches are crucial, and this article discusses the legal framework and steps to conduct a thorough title search.

I. The Relevance of Title Search

A. Property Buyer Protection:

Title searches evaluate a property’s ownership history, guarantees purchasers that they are purchasing from legitimate sellers.
Knowing the property’s title is clear gives buyers ease.

B. Risk Reduction

Identifying liens, mortgages, and legal issues lowers buyer risk.
A thorough title search lets parties address concerns before closing.

C. Compliance with laws:

Title searches guarantee property conformity with local zoning and restrictions.
Development and land use changes need an understanding of a property’s legal status.

II. Thai Property Title Law

A. Land Code Act:

The Land Code Act is fundamental to Thai land ownership law.
It explains land titles and property transaction laws.

B. Land Title Types:

Chanote (Title Deed): The most secure and accomplish land title, outlining property boundaries and ownership.
Nor Sor 3 Gor and Jor: Intermediate titles with fewer data than Chanote but property transactions.
Sor Kor 1: A limited-right possessory title that can be converted to Nor Sor 3 Gor or Chanote

III. Title Search Steps

A. Participation of Professional Services:

Thai real estate attorneys and title search firms are frequently utilized by buyers.
Experts understand property paperwork and negotiate difficult legal issues.

B. Land Title Verification:

First, establish the property’s land title.
Chanote titles are often favored for clarity and authenticity.

C. Encumbrance Inquiry:

Mortgages, liens, and easements are made clear by reviewing the property history.
Buyers can consider how these encumbrances affect property value and plans.

D: Legal Dispute Investigation:

Checking for property-related lawsuits is vital.
For informed decision-making, issues must be resolved or understood.

E. Ensure Proper Documentation:

A title search confirms that all property documents have been authenticated and executed.
For transaction integrity, these documents must be correct.

IV. Title Search Problems

A. An incomplete record:

Land records may be not enough or outdated, establishing title history problematic.
Professionals have to handle such scenarios carefully to assess properly.

B. Informal Land Use:

Informal land occupation, especially in rural areas, hinders title searches.
Problems between informal use and legal ownership are broad.

V. Conclusion

A thorough title search serves a purpose in Thai real estate deals. Understanding land titles and working with Thai real estate experts can help buyers and investors reduce risks, conform with the law, and gain trust in their investments. As Thailand’s real estate market develops, title searches ensuring property transactions are transparent and secure, creating confidence and sustainability.

Thai Will and Succession

Thai wills and succession planning are essential legal instruments that ensure the orderly transfer of assets and the fulfillment of wishes after a person’s passing. In Thailand, a country rich in cultural heritage and a diverse legal landscape, understanding the nuances of Thai wills and succession is crucial. This article delves into the significance of Thai wills, the succession process, key components, legal considerations, and the role they play in safeguarding the interests of families and individuals.

Importance of Thai Wills and Succession:

Thai wills and succession planning serve multiple purposes that go beyond the distribution of assets:

  1. Asset Distribution: Thai wills provide a mechanism for individuals to specify how their assets should be distributed among beneficiaries.
  2. Guardianship: Wills can designate legal guardians for minor children, ensuring their well-being.
  3. Executor Appointment: Executors are appointed to manage the estate and ensure that the deceased’s wishes are carried out.
  4. Minimization of Conflicts: A well-drafted will can help prevent family disputes and confusion over asset distribution.

Key Components of Thai Wills:

A Thai will typically includes several key components:

  1. Testator’s Information: The full name, address, and other identifying details of the person making the will (the testator).
  2. Appointment of Executor: The person responsible for administering the estate according to the terms of the will.
  3. Beneficiaries: Individuals or entities named to receive specific assets or inherit the estate.
  4. Asset Details: Comprehensive details of assets, including real estate, financial accounts, personal belongings, and investments.
  5. Specific Bequests: Detailed instructions for specific gifts or bequests to particular beneficiaries.
  6. Residuary Clause: Instructions for the distribution of remaining assets after specific bequests are fulfilled.
  7. Guardianship Provision: Designation of legal guardians for minor children.

Legal Considerations:

Navigating the legal aspects of Thai wills and succession is essential:

  1. Legal Age: The testator must be at least 15 years old to create a valid will.
  2. Legal Capacity: The testator must be of sound mind and not under duress when creating the will.
  3. Formalities: Thai wills must be in writing and signed by the testator in the presence of at least two witnesses.
  4. Witnesses: Witnesses should be present when the testator signs the will and subsequently sign the will themselves.

Succession Planning in Thailand:

In Thailand, succession planning goes beyond wills and may involve other legal mechanisms:

  1. Intestate Succession: If a person passes away without a valid will, Thai law governs the distribution of assets according to intestate succession rules.
  2. Legal Restrictions on Ownership: Foreigners cannot own land in Thailand under certain conditions. Succession planning for property owned by foreigners may involve leases, usufructs, or setting up legal entities.
  3. Marital Property: Thailand follows a community property system for married couples. Proper succession planning can help ensure a fair distribution of marital property.

Foreign Nationals and Succession:

For foreign nationals residing in Thailand, succession planning may involve unique considerations:

  1. International Assets: Foreign nationals may need to address the distribution of assets located in their home countries or other jurisdictions.
  2. Dual Wills: Some foreign nationals create dual wills—one under Thai law for assets in Thailand and another under the laws of their home country.

Importance of Legal Counsel:

Engaging legal professionals is highly recommended when dealing with Thai wills and succession planning:

  1. Legal Expertise: Attorneys possess the legal knowledge to guide individuals through the complexities of Thai inheritance laws.
  2. Cross-Border Issues: Legal professionals can address issues related to international assets and dual citizenship.
  3. Cultural Sensitivity: Attorneys with local expertise understand the cultural nuances that may impact inheritance decisions.

Succession Process:

The succession process involves several steps:

  1. Notification: Upon the death of an individual, heirs should notify the local district office within 15 days.
  2. Probate Application: If a will exists, the will needs to be submitted to the local district office for probate.
  3. Asset Inventory: An inventory of assets is prepared, including valuations and documentation.
  4. Claims and Debt Settlement: Creditors’ claims are assessed and settled, and the estate’s debts are paid.
  5. Distribution: Assets are distributed according to the terms of the will or intestate succession laws.


Thai wills and succession planning are integral to preserving legacies, securing the future of loved ones, and ensuring the orderly transfer of assets. As Thailand’s cultural heritage intersects with legal complexities, understanding the key components and legal considerations of Thai wills becomes essential. Whether safeguarding assets, minimizing conflicts, or designating guardians, Thai wills and succession planning reflect an individual’s desire to leave a lasting impact and provide for those they care about most. Through proper legal counsel and meticulous planning, individuals can navigate the intricacies of Thai inheritance laws, ultimately achieving their goals for asset distribution and legacy preservation.

Sales Contract Review in Thailand

A sales contract is a pivotal document in real estate transactions, outlining the terms and conditions of the sale. In Thailand’s vibrant real estate market, a thorough review of the sales contract is crucial to ensure clarity, fairness, and legal compliance for both buyers and sellers. This article delves into the significance of sales contract review in Thailand, its key components, legal considerations, and the role it plays in safeguarding the interests of all parties involved.

Importance of Sales Contract Review:

A sales contract serves as a blueprint for the real estate transaction, providing a clear understanding of the rights and obligations of both parties. In Thailand, where the real estate market is diverse and multifaceted, a comprehensive review of the sales contract holds several vital purposes:

  1. Legal Protection: A well-drafted and reviewed sales contract protects the interests of both buyers and sellers, minimizing the potential for disputes and misunderstandings.
  2. Clarity of Terms: A thorough review ensures that the terms and conditions of the sale are clearly defined, leaving no room for ambiguity.
  3. Compliance: The sales contract should align with Thai property laws and regulations to ensure legal compliance.
  4. Transparency: A transparent and comprehensive sales contract fosters trust between parties and promotes a positive real estate transaction experience.

Key Components of Sales Contract Review:

A comprehensive sales contract review in Thailand should encompass the following key components:

  1. Purchase Price and Payment Terms: Clearly outline the purchase price, payment schedule, and any deposit or earnest money required.
  2. Property Description: Provide an accurate and detailed description of the property, including its boundaries and features.
  3. Title and Ownership: Verify that the seller has clear title to the property and has the legal right to sell it.
  4. Conditions of Sale: Specify any conditions that need to be met before the sale is finalized, such as obtaining necessary permits or approvals.
  5. Seller’s Representations and Warranties: Ensure that the seller’s representations about the property’s condition and history are accurate.
  6. Buyer’s Obligations: Clearly state the obligations of the buyer, including any due diligence they need to perform.
  7. Closing Date: Specify the closing date and any contingencies related to the closing.

Legal Considerations:

Navigating the legal landscape is crucial during sales contract review in Thailand:

  1. Thai Property Laws: The sales contract must adhere to Thai property laws, including those related to ownership, taxes, and regulations.
  2. Foreign Ownership: Foreign buyers must ensure that their ownership rights align with Thai legal requirements.
  3. Due Diligence: Review all relevant property documents, permits, and legal records to ensure accuracy and compliance.

Review Process:

Thoroughly reviewing a sales contract in Thailand involves several steps:

  1. Initial Examination: Carefully read the contract to understand its terms, conditions, and obligations.
  2. Legal Expertise: Seek legal advice from a qualified real estate attorney who is familiar with Thai property laws.
  3. Property Documents: Verify the accuracy of property documents, titles, permits, and other relevant records.
  4. Negotiation: If any terms are unclear or need adjustment, negotiate with the other party to reach a mutual understanding.
  5. Translation: If the contract is in a language other than Thai, ensure that it is accurately translated to avoid misunderstandings.
  6. Consideration of Local Practices: Consider local customs and practices that may impact the interpretation of certain clauses.

Buyer and Seller Protection:

Sales contract review protects the interests of both buyers and sellers:

  1. Buyers: A thorough review ensures that buyers are aware of the property‘s condition, ownership, and legal status.
  2. Sellers: Sellers benefit from a well-drafted sales contract that clearly outlines their obligations and minimizes potential liabilities.

Role of Legal Professionals:

Engaging a real estate attorney in Thailand is highly recommended during the sales contract review process:

  1. Expertise: Attorneys possess the legal expertise needed to assess the contract’s compliance with Thai property laws.
  2. Negotiation: Attorneys can negotiate on behalf of their clients to ensure favorable terms.
  3. Risk Mitigation: Attorneys identify potential risks and advise on strategies to mitigate them.


Sales contract review is a cornerstone of responsible real estate transactions in Thailand, providing buyers and sellers with clarity, protection, and confidence. In a dynamic real estate market, where cultural norms and legal requirements intersect, a well-reviewed contract can prevent disputes and lay the foundation for a successful transaction. By ensuring compliance with Thai property laws, addressing potential issues, and fostering transparent communication, the sales contract review process contributes to a thriving real estate environment that benefits all parties involved.


Property Due Diligence in Thailand

Property due diligence is a critical process that ensures transparency, minimizes risks, and enhances informed decision-making in real estate transactions. In Thailand, a country known for its diverse real estate market, property due diligence holds immense significance. This article delves into the concept of property due diligence in Thailand, outlining its importance, key components, legal considerations, and the role it plays in safeguarding both buyers and sellers.

Importance of Property Due Diligence:

Property due diligence involves a comprehensive investigation and verification of property-related information to uncover any potential issues or risks. In Thailand’s dynamic real estate landscape, due diligence serves several vital purposes:

  1. Risk Mitigation: Due diligence identifies potential risks, such as legal disputes, title defects, encumbrances, or zoning violations, enabling parties to assess and manage these risks effectively.
  2. Informed Decision-Making: Buyers and investors can make informed decisions based on accurate and verified information about the property’s condition, ownership, and legal status.
  3. Transparency: Property due diligence promotes transparency between parties, fostering trust and ensuring fair dealings.

Key Components of Property Due Diligence:

Property due diligence encompasses various components that need careful examination:

  1. Title Verification: Ensuring a clear and marketable title by confirming ownership and checking for any encumbrances or liens.
  2. Land Zoning and Regulations: Verifying that the property complies with local zoning regulations and land use restrictions.
  3. Legal Compliance: Ensuring that the property adheres to relevant laws, regulations, and permits.
  4. Environmental Assessments: Evaluating potential environmental risks or liabilities associated with the property.
  5. Physical Inspection: Conducting on-site inspections to assess the condition of structures, utilities, and other physical aspects.
  6. Utilities and Infrastructure: Verifying the availability and functionality of utilities, roads, and essential infrastructure.
  7. Financial and Taxation Analysis: Assessing financial aspects, including property taxes, outstanding assessments, and potential expenses.

Legal Considerations:

Property due diligence in Thailand involves adherence to legal procedures and consideration of specific factors:

  1. Thai Land Code: The Thai Land Code governs property ownership, rights, and regulations in Thailand.
  2. Title Search: A comprehensive title search is crucial to verify ownership, encumbrances, and other title-related details.
  3. Foreign Ownership: Foreigners have certain restrictions on owning land in Thailand, making due diligence even more crucial to ensure compliance.
  4. Leasehold Properties: Due diligence for leasehold properties involves assessing lease terms, renewability, and any restrictions.
  5. Off-Plan Properties: Due diligence for off-plan properties involves evaluating the developer’s track record, project approvals, and construction progress.

Due Diligence Process:

The property due diligence process in Thailand involves several steps:

  1. Initial Assessment: Gather basic property information and conduct a preliminary assessment.
  2. Title Search: Perform a thorough title search to verify ownership and any encumbrances.
  3. Document Review: Examine property documents, contracts, permits, and relevant legal records.
  4. Site Inspection: Physically inspect the property to assess its condition and compliance with regulations.
  5. Legal Compliance: Verify compliance with zoning regulations, environmental laws, and other legal requirements.
  6. Financial Analysis: Assess financial aspects, including taxes, assessments, and potential costs.
  7. Report Compilation: Compile a due diligence report summarizing findings, risks, and recommendations.

Role of Professionals:

Property due diligence is a complex process that often requires expertise from various professionals:

  1. Legal Advisors: Lawyers familiar with Thai property laws can guide parties through legal complexities.
  2. Real Estate Agents: Experienced agents can provide market insights and assist with property research.
  3. Surveyors: Professional surveyors assess the physical condition of the property and its structures.
  4. Environmental Experts: Specialists can assess potential environmental risks associated with the property.


Property due diligence is a cornerstone of responsible real estate transactions in Thailand. As the real estate market continues to evolve, due diligence ensures that both buyers and sellers are well-informed and protected throughout the process. By uncovering potential risks, verifying legal compliance, and providing transparency, property due diligence contributes to a more secure and thriving real estate environment, enabling parties to make confident decisions while navigating the complexities of property ownership in Thailand.

Property Title Transfer in Thailand

There are usually numerous significant pieces of information and documentation necessary when transferring a property title in Thailand. Here are some significant features and information about Thailand’s property title transfer process:

1. The title deed is the official document that certifies ownership of the property (chanote). Along with the owner’s name, it includes information on the property’s location, borders, and area. Throughout the transfer process, the original title deed must be produced.

2. Identification Documents: To prove their identities, both the buyer and the seller (or their authorized representatives) must produce identification documents such as passports or Thai ID cards.

3. Purchase Agreement: A purchase agreement, also known as a sales contract, is a document outlining the terms and circumstances of the acquisition of real estate. It contains information about the purchase price, the terms of payment, and any unique conditions that both parties have agreed upon.

4. Transfer Fees: The buyer is liable for paying transfer fees, which are ordinarily calculated as a percentage of the appraised value of the property. These charges pay for the office expenses related to the ownership transfer.

5. Taxes: During the property transfer procedure, a number of taxes, such as specific business tax, stamp duty, and withholding tax, may be due. The precise tax requirements depend on elements like the kind of property, how long the owner has had it, and the seller’s tax situation.

6. Due Diligence Reports: It is recommended to carry out due diligence before the transfer to make sure that the property has a clear title and is free of any liens, disputes, or legal concerns. This can entail requesting a report from a lawyer or searching the nearby land office.

7. Receipts and Payment Proof: As proof of the financial transactions related to the property transfer, documentation of payment, such as receipts and proof of money, should be retained.

8. Land Office Procedures: The local land office where the property is located is where the property’s title is transferred. The land office will examine the paperwork, confirm the specifics of the sale, and amend the ownership records as necessary.

9. Legal Representation: It is strongly advised to retain the services of an experienced attorney or a respected real estate agent to ensure compliance with Thai rules and regulations and to expedite a quick transfer procedure.

It’s vital to keep in mind that depending on the location, type of property, and any special circumstances involved, the content and particular criteria for property title transfer may change. To successfully traverse the process, it is advised to obtain expert guidance and help.

How Important is Contract Review in Thailand

How Important is Contract Review in Thailand

A good contract can ensure that your sale transaction goes through smoothly, but it’s not without its share of legal complications. While market forces, unequal bargaining positions, and fraud often get in the way of a fair agreement, there are some steps you can take to protect yourself from these risks. One of those steps is to get a lawyer to review your property purchase contract before you sign it.

This can help you avoid costly legal battles and keep your finances and peace of mind intact. This is especially true for foreign buyers, who don’t have the same familiarity with Thai laws as locals do. A lawyer will be able to review your contract and make sure that it adheres to all of the legal requirements in Thailand.

The benefits of a lawyer’s review include:

1. A contract review will ensure that your rights are protected.

This is important because Thai property laws are strict and can result in unfavorable legal consequences if you don’t follow them. A lawyer will check that your contract complies with these requirements and can also recommend any changes that need to be made.

2. A lawyer’s review will allow you to understand the fine print of the contract and identify any issues that may lead to litigation.

A lawyer will read the contract line-by-line and will highlight areas that aren’t clear. He or she will then be able to revise the document accordingly, improving your chances of a successful purchase.

3. A lawyer’s review will save you time and money

When it comes to buying property in Thailand, it is vital to have a lawyer review your contract. This will ensure that you are getting a fair deal and that you don’t end up with anything less than you deserve.

4. A lawyer’s review will help you get the best deal

A reputable lawyer will be able to ensure that you get a good deal when it comes to purchasing property in Thailand. He or she will be able to identify any issues with your contract and can recommend changes that will help you get a better price for the property.

5. A lawyer’s review will help you stay in Thailand safely and securely

It’s vital to have a lawyer review your sale and purchase contract if you’re planning on staying in Thailand for a long period of time. This will ensure that you don’t lose your property or have to leave the country in an unsafe manner.

6. A lawyer’s review will prevent you from losing your investment

The language of the Thai Civil and Commercial Code is complex and there are time limits for breaching contracts ranging from 30 days to 30 years. A lawyer can ensure that your contract is clear and enforceable in Thai courts so that you don’t have to worry about losing your investment or being in danger of being caught in a fraudulent sales transaction.

Importance of Due Diligence in Thailand

Due diligence is a legal procedure that is used to ensure that everything involved in a business deal is above board and will not cause any problems with the transaction. This includes performing a property inspection and conducting a title deed search before making any purchases.

This is a vital step in any investment, especially when it involves real estate in Thailand. You can save yourself from a lot of headaches and expenses by ensuring that you do your due diligence correctly.

In order to perform a due diligence, you need to find an attorney who is well-versed in the legal aspects of buying and selling properties. These attorneys will be able to verify the property’s legal status and check if there are any legal encumbrances or rights attached to it.

You will also need to ensure that the land has not been encumbered by any of the following: Mortgages, lease agreements, or loans. This is because these can lead to legal problems in the future.

It is also a good idea to check the property’s zoning laws. This can prevent you from purchasing an unsuitable property or paying for a plot of land that is not allowed to be developed.

During the due diligence process, you will also need to make sure that the developer of the property is trustworthy. You will need to ensure that they have passed all of their environmental impact studies and zoning regulations. This will also protect you from any potential lawsuits in the future.

The property can also be inspected to check for drainage problems, road access, and disturbances in the environment. It is also a good idea to ask about the phone and sewage systems so that you can make sure they are functioning properly.

You will need to know that there is no land ownership that has not been registered by the local land office, which means that this can be adjusted or nullified at any time. This is why it is essential to have the title deed of the property inspected to ensure that it has been registered correctly.

Thailand Property Awards

Thailand Property Awards

Each year the property awards in Thailand gathers all the major players in the field of property developments and infrastructure development. Attending is the who’s who of the Thai property sector. Law Firm in Thailand attends each year. 2008 was what many had considered a bad year globally for the property, however, judging from the 2009 attendance lists and the number of nominations one is left to wonder where the recession is. The property awards is a good judge of what one might expect in the Thai property market for the year ahead.

In 2008, a selection of anonymous judges from around the country used a scoring system whereby the highest five scorers made the short-list. This year a team of independent judges will produce the short-lists through a consultative process and the panel will be announced publicly.

“It is a significant change this year. We’ve had feedback that people would like to know who the judges are. So this year we will announce the judging panel. We are recruiting the panel now and are being selective to ensure fair representation and no bias. The panel will cumulatively have nationwide knowledge, be both experienced on the Thai real estate industry and in general business, and a number of nationalities will be represented,”

Those short-listed in the development categories will then be contacted and visited by local judging teams in Bangkok, Eastern Seaboard, Phuket, Samui, and Hua Hin, respectively. Following the site visits, the local teams will select the winners.

Following their success in 2008 and involvement in the awards since the beginning in 2006, BDO Richfield Advisory Limited have again been engaged by the organizers to oversee the nomination, entry and judging process, and to ensure all is transparent and fair. BDO Richfield Advisory Limited and the organizers of the awards are not involved in judging the awards